io-ts is a powerful and expressive library for runtime type checking and decoding of data objects in TypeScript. It allows you to define your data types as composable runtime values that can be used to validate any data object you receive (from API responses, configuration files, etc.) and decode it into a TypeScript value.
Zod is a lightweight TypeScript schema validation library that is designed to make it easy to validate and sanitize complex input data. It provides a simple and intuitive syntax for defining a schema that can be used to validate objects, as well as a performant runtime validation engine that can validate data at runtime.
Both io-ts and zod provide robust type checking capabilities. io-ts uses a combinator-based approach where you define types using combinators like `string`, `number`, `array`, etc. zod, on the other hand, uses a schema-based approach where you define types using a fluent API. Both libraries support complex type definitions, type composition, and runtime validation.
io-ts and zod both offer good developer experiences. io-ts provides a more functional programming style API, which may be preferred by developers familiar with functional programming concepts. zod, on the other hand, provides a more intuitive and expressive API, which may be easier to understand for developers new to type checking.
In terms of performance, both io-ts and zod are efficient and have similar runtime overhead. However, zod is generally considered to be slightly faster due to its optimized runtime validation algorithm. The performance difference is usually negligible unless you are dealing with a large number of complex type validations.
Both io-ts and zod have well-documented APIs with examples and guides. io-ts documentation is more extensive and provides detailed explanations of concepts and advanced features. zod documentation is concise and focuses on providing clear examples and usage patterns. Both libraries have active maintainers who are responsive to issues and questions.